Shock turns to anger after Beirut explosion
Should ammonium nitrate be banned? The deadly explosion in Lebanon is just the latest caused by a common fertiliser. Some say it is essential to modern farming. But others want it outlawed.
It vaporised buildings, threw cars into the air, blew out windows, and brought down roofs. It was felt 240 kilometres away in Cyprus.
On Tuesday, life in Beirut changed in a matter of seconds. Countless videos captured the moment at 18:08, when a catastrophic explosion tore through the city.
In seconds, the blast did more damage to Beirut than 15 years of civil war. The official toll – for now – stands at 137 dead and 5,000 injured.
Shock and grief have quickly turned to anger. How did the authorities allow 2,750 tonnes of highly explosive ammonium nitrate to sit in a port warehouse for six years, in the heart of a densely populated city?
Whilst the Lebanese demand answers, experts warn this sort of accident is “grimly familiar”. Globally, ammonium nitrate has been responsible for 240 explosions in the last decade, killing hundreds of people. But, if it is so dangerous, why is it not banned?
The answer lies in the science of agriculture. The invention of chemical fertilisers transformed agriculture forever. It led to a revolution in the 1950s and 1960s, when ammonium nitrate was used alongside other agrochemicals to increase food production.
We are heavily dependent on fertilisers to feed the growing world population. But there are alternatives, including a solution that would have been familiar to our ancestors: crop rotation.
So, should ammonium nitrate be banned?
Feed the world
Some say yes. Chemical fertilisers damage our health, our environment, and contribute to climate change. And, in the hands of incapable authorities or dangerous groups, ammonium nitrate is a lethal weapon.
Others say no. Almost half the world’s population owe their lives to chemical fertiliser. Ammonium nitrate is relatively simple to make and banning it will not stop terrorists from making bombs.
- Has your life ever been changed in a moment?
- Watch the videos in the Expert Links and write a short description of what it must have been like to be in Beirut during the explosions.
Some People Say...
“This is a basic problem: to feed 6.6 billion people. Without fertiliser, forget it. The game is over.”Norman Borlaug (1914-2009), American soil scientist
What do you think?
Q & A
- What do we know?
- Most agree that one of the greatest challenges facing the world is how to feed the growing population. Artificial fertilisers, like ammonium nitrate, currently supply food for 3.5 billion people – almost half the world’s population. By the end of the century, the UN expects there to be 11 billion people, putting even more pressure on agricultural land to produce enough food. At the same time, climate crisis, conflict, and pandemics will put further strain on the food supply chain.
- What do we not know?
- Whether the short-term gain of high-crop yields from artificial fertiliser outweighs the damage to the environment and communities. Supporters argue the risks are associated with the misuse of fertiliser. Where it is regulated and controlled, it has a substantial benefit to people’s lives. Banning it would lead to a global food shortage. But critics say it is far too dangerous to be regulated effectively and the long-term impact on the climate could be catastrophic.
- Made to disappear.
- 15 years of civil war
- Between 1975 and 1990, the small Middle Eastern country was devastated by conflict between different religious and political groups. Thirty years later, the divisions in society remain deep whilst the power-sharing government is weak and unstable.
- Ammonium nitrate
- The mammoth cargo of agricultural fertiliser arrived in Beirut in 2014 on a Russian ship. Described at the time as a “floating bomb”, it was seized by the port authorities for being unseaworthy.
- A harbour that leads to the sea, where ships load or unload.
- Hundreds of people
- In Tianjin, China, 800 tonnes of ammonium detonated in 2015, killing 173 people. In the same year, explosions in the Congolese capital Brazzaville left 250 dead.
- In 1909, the German chemist Fritz Haber successfully converted nitrogen gas into ammonium nitrate, which can be absorbed by plants. Seventy-eight percent of air is composed of nitrogen, but in a form inaccessible to organic life.
- A chemical used in agriculture, such as a pesticide or a fertiliser.
- Crop rotation
- The ancient technique of leaving some fields to rest helps restore the nitrogen levels.
- Climate change
- Fossil fuels burnt to produce artificial fertilisers are a major source of CO2 emissions. But fertiliser use also puts the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide into the atmosphere, which is 300 times more powerful than CO2 at trapping heat and causing global warming.
- Can’t do.
- Hiroshima atomic bomb
- This week is the 75th anniversary of the bombs dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing between 129,000 and 226,000 people.
- Nitrogen cycle
- Nitrogen is taken out of the atmosphere by “nitrogen-fixing” bacteria, so it can be used by plants in growth. It returns to the atmosphere through decomposition and by draining off into the ocean.
- Terrorist attacks
- One tonne of ammonium nitrate (AN) mixed with fuel oil is sufficient to cause a deadly explosion. AN has also been used in attacks by the IRA and Al-Qaeda.
- Algae blooms
- Excess nitrogen in the water causes microscopic aquatic plants to grow, reducing oxygen and light in the water and killing off other life. These “dead zones” can devastate ecosystems and communities that depend on fishing.