Publish or pulp: the return of Charlie Hebdo
Should Charlie Hebdo republish cartoons of the prophet Muhammad? In 2015, they provoked a terrorist attack — and their return threatens to reignite a ferocious debate over free speech.
On 7 January 2015, brothers Chérif and Saïd Kouachi stormed into the Paris office of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo and opened fire. They left 12 people killed and 11 wounded.
The assault was sparked by the publication of cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammed. In Muslim doctrine, any depiction of Muhammed is blasphemy.
The tragedy soon became a flashpoint in a global debate on freedom of speech. Around six million people tweeted “Je suis Charlie”, supporting the magazine’s ability to publish without constraint. Others responded with “Je ne suis pas Charlie”, signalling unease with the provocative cartoons.
This week, as 14 suspected accomplices go on trial, Charlie Hebdo has reprinted the pictures. With them, it has reignited the debate.
In 1948, free speech was enshrined by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is because of free speech, its defenders argue, that we can criticise, challenge, and expose the crimes and corruption of those in power.
Others would claim that we should exercise our freedoms with discretion. The Victorian philosopher John Stuart Mill’s harm principle argues that we should not act freely when, in doing so, we might hurt others.
Should Muhammad return to Charlie Hebdo?
Hold the press!
Oui, some would say. The right to speak freely is what sets democracies apart from repressive dictatorships. A plurality of opinions helps promote fruitful debate. And whatever one thinks of the cartoons, the freedom to publish them should be defended to the hilt as a sign of a fair society.
Non, argue others — and not just because their previous appearance led to tragedy. Free speech is important, but we also have a right to remain silent when speaking may promote hate. There is a difference between stoking debate and fuelling division.
- Can offending others ever be helpful?
- Write a list of 10 rights that you believe every human should have, and put them in order of importance.
Some People Say...
“Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties.”John Milton (1608-1674), English poet and pamphleteer
What do you think?
Q & A
- What do we know?
- It is generally agreed that freedom of speech is a cornerstone of Western democracy. Emerging in 5th century Athens, it became a cause célèbre during the Enlightenment, and has been celebrated by liberal thinkers from John Locke to Tim Garton Ash and enshrined in the constitutions of numerous countries. Traditionally viewed as a socially liberal value, in recent years there have been many conflicts between those who believe that freedom of speech should be regulated to avoid hate against sections of society and those who believe it should be untrammelled.
- What do we not know?
- One main area of debate today concerns the legitimacy of free speech’s assumed benefits. Liberal thinkers have long believed that freedom of speech allows for the advancement of knowledge and the peaceful facilitation of positive changes. Trends such as the emergence of anti-immigration politics across the West and the spread of political misinformation over social media, however, have problematised the idea that free speech necessarily leads to a better-informed, less divided society.
- Intended to ridicule shortcomings in society. It was once mistakenly thought to derive from the ancient Greek “satyr” plays about creatures that were half-man, half-goat.
- Prophet Muhammad
- The founder of Islam.
- The act of insulting a God or other sacred object. A capital offence in several, largely Muslim-majority countries, in Britain it remained a punishable crime until 2008.
- Freedom of speech
- The right to say, write and communicate thoughts and ideas without fear of censorship or reprisal.
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- Organised by the United Nations in 1948, this document enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. Although not legally binding, it provides the foundations of human rights laws in many countries.
- Annus horribilis
- A Latin phrase meaning “horrible year,” populated by Queen Elizabeth II in the 1990s. In November 2015, 130 more Parisians were killed in a second wave of terrorist attacks.
- An advocate of Islamic fundamentalism. Often used in the West to describe those who believe in imposing Sharia (Islamic law) on societies.
- Inviolable or beyond criticism. It derives from two Latin words, “sacro” and “sanctus”, that both have religious connotations.
- Emmanuel Macron
- The current president of France, nicknamed “Jupiter” after the chief of the Roman deities for his top-down manner of governance.
- Insulting, scandalous language. According to the 18th-century Dictionary of Samuel Johnson, “using such language as only the licence of a buffoon can warrant”.