Gentle giants of joy, anger, grief and love

Mum will be back soon: Female elephants babysit each other’s calves. © Alamy

Are elephants as emotional as humans? Six died trying to save a young calf from a waterfall in Thailand. Research on elephants is full of examples of the animals behaving empathetically.

Deep in Thailand’s Khao Yai National Park, there is a treacherous waterfall called Haew Narok, or “Hell’s Fall”.

On 6 October, a family of eight elephants was walking nearby. When a three-year-old elephant calf got into difficulty on a slope, five adult elephants put themselves in mortal danger as they fought to save the baby, and then one another.

But by the time park rangers arrived, all six elephants had drowned.

Elephants have the largest brain of any land mammal, with three times as many neurons as the human brain.

They are one of very few animals — alongside dolphins and chimpanzees — that can recognise their own reflections. Human toddlers only develop this ability between 18 and 24 months of age.

But, beyond pure intelligence, elephants have repeatedly displayed one of the most complex emotional skills available to us: empathy.

We are just beginning to understand the complexity of elephant social networks. Studies show that female Asian elephants have up to 50 friends. Even if they do not see an individual for many years, they will still recognise each other when they are reunited.

Are elephants as emotional as humans?

Trunk call

Surely not, say some. We love to imbue animals with human characteristics. A dog can wag its tail, but that does not mean it is feeling joy. Human feelings of joy and love, for example, are tied to our intelligence and rationality, which is simply not available to other animals.

But the evidence can no longer be denied. Humans are arrogant to ignore the complex and powerful emotions of elephants, which can extend to making the ultimate sacrifice for loved ones.

You Decide

  1. Should elephants have some of the same rights as human beings?

Activities

  1. Research another five interesting or surprising facts about elephants. There are lots out there!

Some People Say...

“Nature’s great masterpiece, an elephant: the only harmless, great thing.”

John Donne (1572-1631), English poet

What do you think?

Q & A

What do we know?
Elephants are the national animal of Thailand, but very few wild elephants remain in the country. Khao Yai National Park, home to around 300 wild elephants, is one of the few places where they roam free. Overall around 7,000 elephants live in Asia, over half of which are in captivity. The African elephant is far more populous, with around 450,000 to 700,000 remaining.
What do we not know?
Whether there is any truth to “elephant graveyards”. According to myth, elephants who are close to death have an urge to travel to a specific location to lie among the bones of their ancestors. Most scientists think it is more likely that large groups of elephant bones simply come from their very specific migration patterns, or from elderly, immobile elephants moving closer to water.

Word Watch

Treacherous
Dangerous; unsafe. A group of eight elephants died at the same site in 1992.
Neurons
Cells that form a network, which transmits information across the brain.
Reflections
Researchers placed coloured markers on the elephant’s body in front of a mirror. Instead of reaching for the mirror, like an animal that did not recognise itself might do, the elephants touched the markers on their own bodies.
Empathy
The ability to understand and share in someone else’s feelings.
Imbue
To fill something with an idea or feeling.

PDF Download

Please click on "Print view" at the top of the page to see a print friendly version of the article.