Book reveals Hawking’s last warning to humanity
Is humanity in danger? Genetically modified superhumans, climate chaos and an AI apocalypse — Stephen Hawking’s final book, which was published yesterday, predicts a future full of peril.
It is a message from beyond the grave. Seven months after his death, Stephen Hawking’s final thoughts on the future of humanity have been revealed in the book: Brief Answers to the Big Questions. Some of his prophecies make for disturbing reading.
In one passage he predicts the rise of genetically engineered “superhumans”. Hawking believed wealthy people could soon use DNA editing to enhance their offspring’s bodies and abilities — effectively creating a superior race.
“Once superhumans appear,” he wrote, “there are going to be significant political problems with the unimproved humans, who won’t be able to compete. Presumably, they will die out.”
Governments can try to prevent this by strictly regulating how genetic engineering is used. However, there is one area of technology that could become totally uncontrollable: artificial intelligence (AI).
According to Hawking, “future AI could develop a will of its own. One can imagine such technology outsmarting financial markets, out-inventing human researchers, out-manipulating human leaders and potentially subduing us with weapons we cannot even understand.”
If that does not finish Earth off, something else will: “[it is] almost inevitable that either a nuclear confrontation or environmental catastrophe will cripple the Earth at some point,” he wrote.
Is the future of humanity really in danger?
Not necessarily, some say. Technology also means progress. One day, AI could end world hunger, and genetic engineering could cure countless diseases.
Don’t be so sure, others respond. For every well-meaning gene therapist, there is another person willing to use the technology for immoral ends. As for AI, the chaos it may unleash would wipe out all of its short-term benefits. We should be worried.
- Are you optimistic about the future?
- Imagine what the world will be like in the year 3018. In one minute, write down predictions of what you think life will be like then. Share your ideas with the class. Are most of the predictions positive or negative? What does this say about how we feel about the future?
Some People Say...
“However difficult life may seem, there is always something you can do and succeed at.”Stephen Hawking
What do you think?
Q & A
- What do we know?
- On the existence of God Hawking wrote: “is the way the universe began chosen by God for reasons we can’t understand, or was it determined by a law of science? I believe the second.”
- What do we not know?
- We do not know if genetic modification can currently be used to safely enhance a person’s physical or intellectual characteristics without side effects.
- He died in March aged 76.
- Big Questions
- Other questions that Hawking explored in the book include: Is there a God? Can we predict the future? Should we colonise space?
- DNA editing
- One of the most advanced techniques is known as CRISPR. This process allows scientists to precisely remove and replace genes.
- Superior race
- In the early 20th century, some thinkers championed eugenics — encouraging those considered as superior to breed, and those of lower classes to be sterilised. This has since been widely and thoroughly condemned.