The hyperloop

Kept in the loop: The technology has been described as both revolutionary and unrealistic.

Want to be whisked down a tube at near-supersonic speed — for the price of a train ticket? Enter the hyperloop. Elon Musk has promised that it will revolutionise transport, but can it work?

  • What is the hyperloop?

    A radical new transportation system that involves pods traveling down a tube very, very quickly. The tube, which could be above or below ground, is almost empty of air to decrease resistance, and the pods levitate, removing friction. In theory, this lets them reach 760 mph — almost the speed of sound.

    The technology, currently under development, is getting a lot of hype. The hyperloop’s inventor, Elon Musk, has called it “the fifth great mode of transportation”.

  • Levitate!?

    This is not as magical as it sounds: Maglev trains in the Far East already use magnetic force to keep the carriages off the ground. Musk’s original idea for the hyperloop was to have the pods float on a cushion of pressurised air (a bit like pucks on an air hockey table). However, engineers have turned to magnetic technology instead.

  • Why do we need the hyperloop?

    Time is money, as they say, and the hyperloop will save commuters a lot of it. You could get from Los Angeles and San Francisco in around half an hour — twice as quickly as on a plane, and a dozen times faster than a car journey.

    The hyperloop could potentially be greener than both: it uses relatively little energy, and some of this could be solar. What’s more, according to Musk’s calculations, it would be much cheaper to build than high-speed railways like the one under construction in California right now.

  • Who is developing it?

    It’s complicated. Musk unveiled the concept in 2013, but declared he doesn’t have time to build the hyperloop himself (he is busy with his rocket company, SpaceX, and car manufacturer, Tesla).

    So, instead, a range of rival companies have cropped up in North America to do it, attracting engineers from the likes of NASA and Boeing. Each has its own designs and business plan. (Although, in 2018, Richard Branson stepped down as chairman of Virgin Hyperloop One because the company needed “a more hands-on chairman”.)

  • Where and when can I take a ride?

    It’s a tricky question. While Elon Musk has proposed several routes between major cities in America, he must first get government approval to build the infrastructure. This is far from guaranteed.

    Meanwhile, governments from Slovakia to South Korea are showing interest. Each company has its own timeframe, but most want to have pods up and running by the start of the next decade. Some may start by transporting cargo as a way of testing the safety and efficiency of their system.

  • There must be a catch.

    Sceptical experts point to a variety of obstacles. The slightest fault in the tubes could let air in, destroying the low-pressure environment the system needs in order to run. The sun’s heat will cause the steel in the tubes to expand, and it is not clear how this would be accommodated.

    Others raise non-technical issues. Travel at that speed — especially acceleration and deceleration — may be uncomfortable. Public complaints and government regulations could hold back the building of infrastructure. And, if constructed above ground, the tubes could be a target for terrorists.

  • Will it actually happen?

    Let’s wait and see. Science-wise, it is already achievable: “Hyperloop is like, done,” said one lead engineer. The challenge is to make it safe, cheap and comfortable enough to work as an alternative to existing modes of transport. There is still a long way to go.

    Ever the dreamer, Musk is keen to see a hyperloop system in operation, no matter what. Even if it fails commercially, he says, “it would be a really fun ride”.

You Decide

  1. Is it more important to invent new modes of transport, or improve existing ones?


  1. Where is the hyperloop most needed? Come up with a route (it can be anywhere in the world) and write a letter to a hyperloop company, explaining why they should build there.

Word Watch

Elon Musk
The inventor-entrepreneur is known for his ambitious — some say wacky — projects involving rockets and AI. See ColdFusion’s video in Become An Expert.
The other four being “the ship, the train, the automobile and the airplane”.
The Shanghai Maglev is currently the fastest train in the world, with a top speed of 267.8 mph.
Musk believes that the hyperloop only makes sense for journeys under 900 miles. For longer distances, planes travel at cruising speed for long enough that they become more efficient.
Under construction
Since Californians approved this gigantic project in 2008, it has hit all kinds of logistical snags, and costs have risen to $64 billion (£49 billion). In 2013, Musk estimated that a hyperloop line from Los Angeles to San Francisco would cost only $6 billion (£4.6 billion), but this figure has been disputed.
Showing interest
The UK Government has not shown much interest in the hyperloop. But Hyperloop One is, nevertheless, considering three routes in the country. London to Edinburgh, for example, would take only 50 minutes.

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